In terms of the education institutions, t least, worthy students are at risk of being turned away due to these universities and colleges have to meet the quota of accepting certain minority students. These however may be problematic to the university (in terms of behavior or skills) or may not qualify. Accepting them will mean turning away better qualified (and possibly equally needy) White students. This also is unconstitutional since each individual should be judged on the basis of merit alone. In this way, affirmative action should be hedged with conditions and should probably apply more in some circumstances than others. Certainly, academic institutions should accept individuals of minority race, but they should not do so at the detriment of other more worthy students nor to the detriment of the reputation of their institution.

IV. Summary and Conclusions-summarize the issue and how you define it, the main point of your position and your informed conclusions about what is likely to happen regarding the issue

In short, my conclusion is that the American government should base its rulings on the Constitution. The Constitution insists that all be judged according to merit rather than according to extraneous elements. This refers to all races both White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, and so forth -- as well as all other factors. The day that the Brown decision was put into effect was a celebratory day for the Black race -- and indeed for humanity in general -- and for good reason. Justice Felix Frankfurter, commented that it was "a day that will live in glory… and a great day in the history of the Court." Similarly, Justice Harold Burton called it "a great day for America and the Court" whilst the justices' law clerks remembered it as a day on which they felt "good -- and clean. It was so good." (Clark, 2004).

Humanity had just taken a giant leap forward in humanistic action. In their heed to practice affirmative action, however, people should strive not to practice the reverse: Reverse Discrimination. The result can be intolerance and as Davis (2007) notes, sociopolitical negative impacts may accrue as a result. At the moment, institutions of higher education still strain for race diversity on campuses, but their doing so only has adverse impact on meeting the needs of these students of minority populations for they may have been better served by having been rejected by that school and accepted by one more suitable for them. Ironically, therefore, affirmative action may have detrimental results for precisely those who it is wishing to please. Kaveny, (1996) too notes the negative ethical consequences that may ensure to not only the school and other students but to these minority students themselves since the schools are avoiding their true need and foisting them into an environment that may be too stressful for them. Not everyone is suitable for a Harvard. Yet if Harvard is compelled to take some of these students based on more race that on individualistic merit, it is ill-serving these students. The result is exponential damage. Increasingly more studies are pointing to similar results. The future seems to be veering away from affirmative action to a more rationalized and balanced practice of it...


Federal Register

Infoplease Milestone Cases in Supreme Court History --

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, "Executive Order 10925 -- Establishing The President's Committee On Equal Employment Opportunity."

Clark, H.R. (2004). Brown at 50: The Road That Lies Behind Us and the Challenges Ahead. Judicature, 88(2), 56+. Retrieved from

Davis, D.J. (2007). Race and Diversity in Higher Education: An Examination of Race-Based Admission and Its Alternatives. College and University, 82(2), 25+. Retrieved from

Kaveny, M.C. (1996). Discrimination and Affirmative Action. Theological Studies, 57(2), 286+. Retrieved from