S. with President Bush in command of what is reported to be a quick smashing of the defense of Iraq in a mere six weeks and indeed, in the present time nearing 2011, the United States is still heavily invested in manpower, machine power, and attempts to bring about peace in Iraq which has been flooded with used uranium and witnessed bloodshed unlike any other modern nation. It is reported in the work of Davidson and Stoff (2010) on pages 970 and 971 of the textbook that the U.S. President George W. Bush signed the Patriot Act, which instituted authorities in the U.S. with wide-ranging powers for investigating and imprisoning people.

V. Fragmentation and Isolation

Davidson and Stoff (2010) commit the bias of fragmentation and isolation in their historical account of the southern states during the civil war. For example, Davidson and Stoff aver on pages 486 and 487 of the textbook that all southerners were slave owners when nothing could be more untrue. Documented history clearly indicates that most of the southern whites just prior to and during the Civil War were just as poor as were the slaves who were owned by a small minority of white southern plantation owners. In addition, among these owners of slaves were black plantation owners.

Davidson and Stoff also report isolated unnamed and non-dated incidents that were 'supposed' or 'assumed' to have occurred in which nameless white southerners, who were jobless "took out their anger on blacks" through torturing and lynching the black victims. The truth however, is that little of this is documented and for some few white southerners to actually own slaves this is clearly isolationism in historical accounting of that day.

VI. Linguistic Bias

Linguistic bias is evident in the work of Davidson and Stoff as they recount history from a biased point-of-view, which appears to be inherent in this particular textbook. The textbook at all times when discussing the issue of slavery appears to operate on the assumption that all southern whites were heinous slave owners and thus incapable of supporting justice and equality.

VII. Cosmetic Bias

The work of Davidson and Stoff contains elements of bias and the last of which is that of 'Cosmetic Bias'. Cosmetic bias is evidenced in that the cover of this book is red, white and blue, and features the Statue of Liberty, representative of liberty and freedom, when in reality, this book is replete with bias and bias-related information and disinformation. That bias and disinformation has been the focus of this work in writing.

Summary and Conclusion

Bias is evident in historical accounting and despite the intentionality or non-intentionality of textbook historical accounting bias, one having delivered the bias, that bias is then branded in the mind of the individual who is reading and studying the textbook. Davidson and Stoff fail to refrain from bias in their writing and at times appear to be consumed fully by the assumptions that have led to the contained and wide-range of bias in Davidson and Stoff's work in writing. Davidson and Stoff, while attempting to write a clearly equitable historical accounting…