Both African and Mexican-Americans also faced many new forms of terrorism such as literacy tests, stuffing of ballot boxes, blatant lies and accusations of incompetence, and labeling any minority who actually won official political offices.

These movements were different in how they attempted to resolve the hatred and discrimination that was being thrown their way. As discrimination was being addressed by new laws, whites simply ignored the new statutes. One major difference in the civil rights movements of the two groups was that one had a national following while the other was more of a local only movement. In other words, blacks had the support in theory of the entire nation because blacks had migrated to every state in the country and at the time, Mexican-Americans were not as diverse around the nation. For this reason, most of the leadership behind the true civil rights movement came from the ranks of the black middle class and these new leaders.

In Texas, these new leaders established a chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in Houston in 1912. This movement grew stronger and by 1930 there were more than thirty other chapters the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People around Texas. The group had a direct goal to eliminate the white obstacles to voting, school desegregation, creating universities and freedom of housing. There were Tejanos groups as well but they were not as prominent. For example, the Orden Hijos de America (Order of Sons of Americaqv) had the same motives as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Both groups basically tried to fight racial inequality, but the black groups were better funded and a little better organized. Because of this organizational history, the Black Texas civil rights movement was probably a little more effective than the other.

In conclusion, this essay discussed African and Mexican civil rights in Texas. The goal was to discover what some of the key events were in each the African-American and the Mexican-American battles for civil rights. A secondary objective was to see how these movements resembled each other and how they differed from one another and if one was more effective than the other. The laws, regulations and policies of the state work towards addressing discrimination because of race, color, sex, national origin, religion, age, disability, political belief and sexual orientation. It may be true that wealth, or the lack of it, may be the new driver of the civil rights movement in the state of Texas, but the Civil Rights movement in this state has been successful to a point. When it comes to reducing the social inequalities and the discrimination that is rampant in our society both black and Mexican-Americans benefit from the state's efforts. The state has made great strides to protect them from discrimination by any federal or state laws, regulations and policies and black and Mexican-Americans each benefit from these civil rights laws and policies:

Social Security Act of 1935 (Title V)

Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VI)

The Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX)

Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504)

Age Discrimination Act of 1975

Food Stamp Act of 1977

Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Food and Nutrition Services Instructions (113 Series)

USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Directives (1510.1 and 1520.1)

Methods of Administration with U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

State Plan of Operation and Federal/State Agreements

Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code (Chapter 106)

Texas Administrative Code (Title 40 and Title 25)

HHSC Civil Rights Policies and Procedures

Other applicable civil rights laws and regulations

Works Cited

Arnoldo De Leon. (1982). "The Tejano Community, 1836-1900." Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Alwyn Barr (1973). "Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971." Austin: Jenkins.

Michael L. Gillette. (1978). "The Rise of the NAACP in Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 81, April.

David Montejano (1987). "Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986." Austin: University of Texas Press.

Ignacio M. Garcia. (1989). "United We Win: The Rise and Fall of La Raza Unida Party." Tucson: University of Arizona Mexican-American Studies Research Center.…