SAMPLE EXCERPT:

(Tu, 2009)

However, in spite of these benefits, the residents are exposed to high levels of air pollution. This is challenging, as it is contributing to larger numbers of cases of asthma and other respiratory conditions. Evidence of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by Tu (2009). He found that specific pollutants in are higher in the Bronx vs. The rest of New York City. Most notably: PM10, PM2.5, NOx, CO, and SO2. This is because there are a larger number of factories, warehouses and industrial sites. In these locations, they will emit more of these substances in the air. This is problematic, as these compounds have been directly linked to higher levels of respiratory diseases in contrast with the rest of the city and state. (Tu, 2009)

Problem

The data is showing that 60% of the residents of the Bronx are negatively impacted by asthma and other breathing related conditions. This is problematic, in illustrating how there are more pollutants located inside the atmosphere. Under the Healthy People 2020 objectives, there should be a concentrated effort in reducing the emissions from many industrialized facilities. This is because if the situation is allowed to continue, it will only continue to become worse. (Maanty, 2007) (Tu, 2009)

The way that this is a major issue for the community, it is based upon the fact that larger numbers of respiratory cases are reported in contrast with the rest of New York City and the state. If there was an emphasis on reducing pollutants in the atmosphere, there will be an increase in air quality and decline in those people who are impacted by asthma. This will improve the health of residents and enhance their overall levels of health. (Maanty, 2007) (Tu, 2009)

Historical significance

The historical significance, is illustrating how the Bronx has been negatively impacted by other issues in comparison with the rest of the city. This is because, there are more communities which have families from lower economic backgrounds and land values are cheaper. These elements are attractive to many manufacturers, who want to be close to Manhattan and New Jersey without having to worry about the high costs of doing business. This has caused the Bronx to have higher levels of air pollution. (Hershkowitz, 2002)

At the same time, the favorable tax breaks from the city are encouraging them to locate to these areas. This has made the community an attractive location for producing their products and having easy access to key markets. It is at this point when they are able to realize lower cost benefits and convenience. The downside of the problem; is that this has caused them to emit more pollutants into the atmosphere. (Hershkowitz, 2002)

Summary

Clearly, air quality standards are a major problem for residents of the Bronx. This is an issue for various minorities who make up the majority of the population. The biggest factors which are contributing to the problem are the large amounts of pollutants placed into the atmosphere from manufacturers located in the region. This is because, they have found that land values are cheaper and there is favorable tax breaks provided to them. These elements means that air quality will be much worse in contrast with the rest of the city and the state.

References

Bronx County New York. (2011). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/36/36005.html

Casado, J. (2010). A Survey on Environmental Health Issues. Bronx Health Link. Retrieved from: http://www.bronxhealthlink.org/bronxhealthlink/bronxhealthlink/reports/tbhl_environmental_survey_report_pdf:en-us.pdf

Davidson, A. (2012). Why Can't the Bronx Be More Like Brooklyn? The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com

Dudley, W. (2011). The National and Regional Economic Outlook. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved from: http://www.newyorkfed.org

Hershkowitz, A. (2002). Bronx Ecology. Washington DC: Island Press.

Maanty, J. (2007). Asthma and Air Pollution. Health and Place, 13, 32 -- 56.

Tu, J. (2009).…