6% of people are either Hispanic or have Latino origin. In addition, 93% of the people speak English and 3% speak Spanish in Richmond 38% of people married.

The population is about 1.3 million, and it has a growing international community, which adds to the areas cultural diversity and its cosmopolitan character. 49% of the population is males while 51% represents the female, and 54% of people are the working class aged 25-64. In addition, the education attainment includes 80.6% of people with high school or higher graduates, 20.8% for some college, and 32.0% with some Bachelor's Degree or higher. The greater Richmond adds to the Richmond's MSA's population of 74% with the population rate being slightly higher, than that of Richmond's MSA growth rate. Greater Richmond contains all the other towns that make up Virginia State (HCPPTF Report, 2012).

Richmond has a relative population with over 200 schools. The relative population of the children in schools creates a favorable condition of spread of disease in an event of an outbreak of a contagious disease such as whooping cough. In addition, there is a risk of the vaccines administered to infants wearing of and making them susceptible to whooping cough at their teenage in an event of an outbreak. There has been a central increase in the breakouts of whooping cough in Virginia and the United States. From 2009 -- 2010, major cases of the outbreak reported in Virginia that holds Richmond. Richmond has had cases of breakouts of whooping cough before and these continuous breakouts make an area susceptible to whooping cough.

Whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by bacteria. It is a human disease, and it is transmission is human to human usually by contact with the infected person respiratory droplets, especially when he coughs or sneezes. It has an incubation period of 7 to 10 days; its range is between 4 to 21 days. Adults and adolescent who have partial protection from vaccines may have mild respiratory disease symptoms of common cold or influenza. Vaccines partially protect people they still have the potential to spread the disease (HCPPTF Report, 2012).

It has three phases. The first phase consists of short cough, sneezing and long grade fever. It worsens after two weeks and paroxysmal stage, which mainly characterized by intense coughing lasting for 32 to 3 weeks. The convalescent stage then follows lasting for 2 to 6 weeks. Whooping cough symptoms can last for more than six months though whooping cough usually develops in the paroxysmal stage. Using prophylactic drugs may help in managing whooping cough in its secondary stage. Early use of antibiotics also plays a vital role in shortening of the illness duration. Vaccinations are some of cost effective preventive measure. Healthy people 2020 goals are to increase life expectancy through immunization. Its objectives are to focus on technological advancement that made sure that the country, local government, and nongovernmental organization play a central role in fighting the spread of infectious disease (HCPPTF Report, 2012).

The Virginia Department of Health urges people to take caution during the summer when this problem of whooping is highly a risk. Virginia has witnessed significant outbreaks and the issue has raised concern in the society. The newborn babies mainly are at risk if the outbreaks continue at the rate. Many of the infants affected with whooping cough risk their lives because they suffer lung infections, seizures, and even death. To protect babies, and other people, they should ensure they updated with the recommended vaccines.


HCPPTF Report, (2012). Virginia Health Commissioner's Pertussis Prevention Task Force.

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