229). The diagnosis of a new patient with the disease requires education and support to understand the disease and impact on the patient's life. Notably, the diagnosis stage requires regular observation of the patient and numerous discussions with him/her and the family regarding specific needs and functional ability. The researcher argues that there are therapeutic alternatives to optimize the pharmacological management of Parkinson's disease at all stages. Early onset of the disease is treated using levodopa and additional dopamine agonist for patients who continue experiencing dyskinesia. During mid-stage, patients should undergo close monitoring to optimize motor control while administering doses of levodopa.

Traumatic Brain Injury in the Elderly:

Traumatic brain injury is a major health issue among older adults since it accounts for over 80,000 emergency department visits on an annual basis by persons above 65 years. The severity of this problem is evident in the fact that 75% of these visits usually end up in hospitalization (Thompson, McCormick & Kagan, 2006, p.1590). However, this neurocognitive disorder is still a neglected disease burden across the globe. As a result, three researchers conducted a study on the epidemiology, outcomes, and future implications of traumatic brain injury in older adults.

Based on the findings of their study, the highest rates of hospitalization and death related to this disease occur among adults aged 75 or more. The two major causes of this disorder are falls and motor vehicle accidents, which accounts for 51% and 9% respectively. The major risk factors for traumatic brain injury include male sex and non-white ethnicity. The researchers argue that the widespread neglect of the disease is attributed to the scarcity of information available about traumatic brain injury in older adults ((Thompson, McCormick & Kagan, 2006, p.1593). Consequently, the existing care of older patients with the disease is largely based on previous work conducted in younger patients. This contributes to the urgent need to study traumatic brain injury in the elderly, particularly because of the frequency with which elderly people experience it. There is need to refocus research efforts on this significant public health issue to prevent its prevalence in the elderly and identify unique care needs to promote the best patient outcomes.


Neurocognitive disorders are illnesses that are most likely to occur among older adults than younger ones mainly because of older age. While an increase in age plays a crucial factor in the occurrence of these diseases, they are usually associated with other factors depending on the specific disorder. Moreover, the diseases have varying impacts on the patient and require the development of effective protective measures to prevent their spread and effects in the aging population. In essence, significant research initiatives should be undertaken to address these public health issues.


Iansek, R. (2004, September). Pharmacological Management of Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 34(3), 229-233. Retrieved from

Thompson, H.J., McCormick, W.C. & Kagan, S.H. (2006, October). Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Adults: Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Future Implications. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 54(10), 1590-1595. Retrieved from

Verghese et. al. (2003, June 19). Leisure Activities and the Risk of Dementia in the Elderly. The New England Journal of Medicine 348, 2508-2516. Retrieved from