George Kelly's theory is a scientific alternative to personality theory. He developed an organized set of constructs to explain human phenomenon. Describe how Kelly's philosophical theory has clinical application to Jane's personality structure? How might Kelly's concept of pathological anxiety apply to your understanding of Jane?

George Kelly's theory focused on specific issues that could have an effect on the way someone sees the world around them. This is accomplished is by taking events from past experiences and using them to determine the best approach for dealing with specific incidents. Throughout the life of the individual, they will test and utilize different techniques that are effective at helping them cope. Over the course of time, this changes their state of mind to the point that the individual will begin to continually act this way until something forces them to change. This is when they will reevaluate what is happening. Then, develop new strategies that will help them to address a host of challenges. In the future, this person will use these experiences to anticipate a particular event (fundamental postulate). Evidence of this can be seen with Kelly saying, "A person's process is psychologically channelized [sic] by the ways in which he anticipates events." ("The Beginning of Cognitivism," 2002) (Barlow, 2008, pp. 81 -- 89) (Barone, 2008, pp. 103 -- 121)

These ideas will help Jane, to focus on how specific events have caused her to be in an un-resourceful state. This is because she is having post-traumatic stress syndrome associated with her car accident. After the event, she was given tremendous amounts of sympathy from family and friends. This caused her thought patterns to change by realizing that she can receive whatever she wants with people feeling sorry for her. The problem is that these constant demands have pushed Jane's family and friends to the point that they are no long willing to help. ("The Beginning of Cognitivism," 2002) ("Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs," 2005) (Barlow, 2008, pp. 81 -- 89)

Once this happened, is when Jane began to fall into a depression by feeling unloved and unable to come to terms with the accident. Kelly's theory will help Jane by slowly pushing her to do activities on her own. This will help to change her state and the issues she has with leaving the house. Over the course of time, these kinds of activities will help to change her personality structure by giving Jane more self-sufficiency. The way that this is accomplished is to shift how she looks at past events and anticipate new situations. This is the first step in improving the way she is looking at the world around her and how to react to various events (despite the issues of the past). ("The Beginning of Cognitivism," 2002) ("Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs," 2005) (Barlow, 2008, pp. 81 -- 89) (Barone, 2008, pp. 103 -- 121)

According to Kelly, pathological anxiety exists when the person becomes aware that caregivers (i.e. family and friends) are no longer willing to tolerate their behavior. This awareness is what breaks down the individual's pattern construction system. The way that this concept can be applied to Jane is to highlight how she is going through a similar experience. In this particular case, Jane's family and friends have refused to help her. This is an obvious sign that she has become overly needy and is using the accident as an excuse for this behavior. In reaction to what is happening Jane believes that everyone has turned their back on her (leading to feelings of sadness and inadequacy). (Barone, 2008, pp. 103 -- 121)

The best way that therapists can address these issues are to explain how Jane needs to make some kind of changes to help herself. This is what will bring her closer to family and friends. To achieve these objectives requires pushing her to do more in dealing with the fears of the past. Jane's current state of mind is one where the psychologist can use this breakdown as way to invite positive changes in her life. This is the point that she will be decide to do more to deal with these issues. ("Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs," 2005)

Information-Processing theory and Cognitive Psychology have been used interchangeably to discuss human behavior. How people organize information and their consequential lifestyle is a current interest in psychology today. Using the concepts of causal attribution, self-schemata, self-guides, and other related cognitive constructs, how has Jane possibly misinterpreted her situation?

The casual attribution theory is when the individual begins to make subtle distinctions about particular events that are occurring to them. In most cases, this takes place with the person asking questions such as: why this is happening and what is the meaning of these situations. In the case of Jane, she is using casual attribution to be able to create answers as to why her family and friends are no longer catering to her. At the same time, she is using this as a way to be able to feel depressed about how no one loves or cares for her based upon these attitudes. This is important, because these ideas are causing Jane to misinterpret what is happening based on asking questions and immediately providing answers (that are not realistic). (Kelly, 1973)

Self-schemata is when a particular person will act in a way based on social stereo types and attitudes. The situation with Jane is one where she has been given tremendous amounts of sympathy from the accident. This has caused her to believe that when she is having difficulties everyone should help her. The problem with these kinds of thoughts is that her demands become more extreme. Once this takes place, is when everyone will no longer want to help Jane. This is because she has become pushy with friends and family in addressing all of her needs. When no one is willing to help, Jane will use the social attitudes associated with the accident to receive further sympathy from mental health professionals. These elements are important, because they are causing Jane to believe that she is entitled to everyone's sympathy and support. The problem is that these beliefs are creating misinterpretations about roles and responsibilities. Over the course of time, this is leading to conflict between: Jane and her caregivers. This is the point that her family and friends are no longer willing to help (which leads to feelings of resentment followed by depression). (Baumeister, 1999, pp. 123 -- 137) (Barone, 2008, pp. 103 -- 121)

Self-guides are when the person has different objectives they will achieve from acting in a specific manner. The basic idea is that certain kinds of behavior will yield specific actions from select individuals. This tool can be used to motivate someone to set higher goals (which are helping to empower them). However, there are times when these goals could become the desire to receive certain kinds of treatment by acting out. This will cause the person to receive the short-term benefits. The problem is that these kinds of issues will lead to the individual slowly losing any kind of self-sufficiency. (Zanna, 1998, pp. 4 -- 11)

In Jane's case she is using self-guides as a way to receive emotional satisfaction and support from particular individuals. For example, during the process of receiving care from family members, is when Jane begins to make them feel bad about not spending enough time with her. The main reason why, is because she is afraid to be alone after the accident. Instead of dealing with the problem, Jane will set subconscious goals of receiving pleasure by having someone always with her. Over the short-term, this will address her immediate needs. However, in the longer term, these objectives and the tactics that she is using are worrying. This is when Jane is so needy that friends and family feel as if she is taking advantage of the situation. As a result, she is misinterpreting feelings of compassion for the requirement that everyone should be there for her at all times. This is what is causing Jane to become overly reliant on friends and family. (Zanna, 1998, pp. 4 -- 11)

The other construct that Jane is using to misinterpret the various events is: the differences among people. This is when she is assuming that her friends and family will share the same kind of experiences that she has endured. The problem with this kind of thinking is that she assumes that everyone will understand where she is coming from. This leads to the belief that everyone will drop what they are doing to satisfy the immediate needs of Jane. When in reality, her family and friends will only help her up to a certain extent. The rest is up to her and how she is able to adjust. These different views lead to the conflict about responsibilities between Jane and her caregivers. Over the course of time, these distinctions can become so large that they have an effect on…