Osteoporosis

Definition of Osteoporosis:

Osteoporosis is a developing condition in which bone density is lost, or there is inadequate bone formation, thereby deteriorating the bones and making them more vulnerable to fractures. Osteoporosis is also known as the silent disease and is a familiar bone disease, which makes the bone lean and having holes. Osteoporosis takes place when the body does not form new bone and it affects both men and women. During a person's lifetime, the body requires minerals phosphate and calcium to form bones. If the nutritional consumption of these minerals is not enough or if the body does not take up sufficient minerals from the diet, the bone production and bone tissue will be affected leading to fragile and weak bones. Osteoporosis is called the silent disease because this occurs over a period of time. Many people are not aware that they have osteoporosis until they fracture a bone and by this time it is in its advanced stage.

Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become weak and are prone to break. These broken bones occur mainly in the hip, spine and wrist. Any bone can be affected, but the main troubles are fractures of hip and spine. A hip fracture almost always needs hospitalization and major surgery. It can damage an individual's capacity to walk without help and may create lengthened or permanent disability or even death. Spinal or vertebral fractures also have severe consequences, including loss of height, acute back pain, and deformity.

Incidence of Osteoporosis:

The word occurrence of Osteoporosis means the yearly diagnosis rate, or the amount of new cases of Osteoporosis detected annually. The occurrence of hip fracture at age 50 is 17% to 22.7% in women. In the case of men it is 6% to 11%. On the whole the occurrence of any suggestive fracture in persons of the age of 60 and above with an average life expectation is 56% for women. And this would be 29% for men. In spite a lower levels of occurrence and incidence, the one year mortality after having hip fractures is 1.5 to 2 times higher in men in comparison to women. The latest facts point that the incidence of osteoporosis among patients having vertebral fractures is greatly miscalculated. This is due to the fact that even if a vertebral fracture is both found and detected, the existence of osteoporosis as a factor is rarely detected. A report showed that only 60% of the fractures were accounted for and osteoporosis was only dealt with for about a quarter of those patients.

Prevalence of Osteoporosis:

The word occurrence of Osteoporosis generally means the number of people who are coping with Osteoporosis over a period of time. Osteoporosis is the main health threat for 28 million Americans. At present, in the United States, 10 million people already have osteoporosis and 18 million more have low bone mass, keeping them at increased risk for this disease. On the whole, around eight million American women and 2 million men have osteoporosis. The following figures reveal the prevalence of Osteoporosis in the U.S.A. According to the figures for the year 2004 brought out by National Osteoporosis Foundation, there are 10 million cases of Osteoporosis in the U.S.A.; 34 million at possibility; 55% of people over the age of 50 have the risk of the disease in the country; women constitute 80% of cases; men account for 20% of the cases; During their lifetime, 50% of women over the age of 50 will have osteoporosis related fracture; During their lifetime 25% of men over the age of 50 years will have an osteoporosis related fracture in the country.

A study entitled "Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Diagnosis and Monitoring" noted that there are 10 million cases of osteoporosis supporting the figures of the National Osteoporosis Foundation. The study further noted that 18 million people have the chance of developing osteoporosis in the U.S.; 80% of cases relating to this disease occur in women in the country; there are 8 million cases of osteoporosis in women in the country and among men there are 2 million of cases; In the case of white women above the age of 50 the reported cases relate to 15%. According to WHO women above the age of 80 accounts for 70% of osteoporosis cases in the U.S.A.

Morbidity of Osteoporosis:

In aged people, one of the most common diseases is osteolysis. A study was done in a home for the aged in Guangzhou City in March of the year 1995 to get the morbidity data of osteolysis and to provide data for the planning of health programs for the aged population. 326 cases of the ages of 57 to 95 were reported with 113 of males and 213 of females. A feedback form was given to get the data of related factors of osteolysis. Body weight and body length were calculated and the out-off point of bone density for the detection of osteolysis was 0.488 g/cm2 for females and 0.535 g/cm2 in the case of males. The results validated that the morbidity for osteoporosis was 34.6%. The morbidity of female was considerably much higher than that of males. The body weight and body height of osteolysis group were considerably less than that of normal group. The bone density of smokers and alcohol drinkers was appreciably lesser than that of others. The bone density of the people who kept themselves fit was considerable higher in comparison to those who did not. It was also to be noted that the exercises will help in preventing osteoporosis.

Costs of Osteoporosis to society:

major health menace for 28 million Americans is osteoporosis, of which 80% are women. Osteoporosis is the major cause for more than 1.5 million fractures yearly, inclusive of 300,000 hip fractures, and around 700,000 vertebral fractures, 250,000 wrist fractures, and at other sites of more than 300,000 fractures. Projected national direct costs for osteoporosis and related fractures are $14 billion a year. The projected national direct costs for osteoporotic and associated fractures were $17 billion in 2001, i.e. $47 million each day and the rate is increasing.

Secondary Osteoporosis:

Osteoporosis can be further classified into 3 types: involutional or primary osteoporosis in which no primary reason can be found; secondary osteoporosis in which the primary reasons for example, use of steroid use is known; and thirdly rare forms of the disease, like juvenile, pregnancy-related, and postpartum osteoporosis.

There is no supporting procedure on how to assess patients for secondary causes of osteoporosis. The history and physical checking may advise a clear cause, for example, hypogonadism, anorexia nervosa. One proposed laboratory work-up is given: "Calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, liver function studies; Creatinine, albumin; 24-urine calcium; 25-OH vitamin D; Thyroid-stimulating hormone; Complete blood count; Sedimention rate." These tests can be ordered selectively on the basis of history, physicality, and on the basis of the results of the above tests: "Lutenizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, testosterone; Parathyroid hormone; Serum and urine protein electrophoresis; 24-urinary-free cortisol; Ferritin."

Juvenile Osteoporosis:

Osteoporosis also occurs in childhood, even though it is more common in older people and particularly women in menopause. The average age in children is 8 to 14, but it can also occur during the period of growth spurts. In children the main reason for this disease is genetic disorder or a medical condition. In such cases it is known as secondary osteoporosis. But sometimes no reason can be found and it is categorized as a very peculiar form of osteoporosis known as idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis -- IJO.

The reasons, which may be credited for the different forms of osteoporosis in children, are: secondary osteoporosis disorders which is formed by a prevalent medical condition like "juvenile arthritis; diabetes mellitus; osteogenesis imperfecta; homocystinuria; hyperthyroidism; hyperparathyroidism; Cushing's syndrome; malabsorption syndromes; anorexia nervosa and kidney disease." Medications include "anti-convulsants; corticosteroids; immunosuppressive medications." Lifestyle includes increased inactivity or immobility; deficiency of dietary calcium and vitamin D; increased exercising causing amenorrhea. Children with idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis -- IJO may have lower back, hip and foot pain. The indications of juvenile osteoporosis may be like other bone ailments or medical problems. Detection of juvenile osteoporosis is usually not made till the child has a broken bone. The detection procedures for juvenile osteoporosis are: medical history of the family, skeletal x-rays - this test makes use of invisible electromagnetic energy beams to create images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto the film, bone density test - this method finds the bone mineral content and skeletal variations like bone loss, blood tests in order to measure the levels of serum calcium and potassium.

Osteoporosis in Men:

Many people do not believe that men can have osteoporosis, as this disease is most commonly linked with women. Men can also get hip and other bone fractures, which is a common feature of osteoporosis. Usually men are detected to have osteoporosis only when they have fractured a bone. Hip fractures take place only at older ages in men, which could makeā€¦