Certain tools are developed to organize these actors and their influences so that reforms are made more effective and each point adds beneficial value in it (Rossetti and Bossert, 1999).

Politics and Healthcare Reforms

The modern world is focusing on the efficacy of healthcare systems and modern politicians are also paying much attention to it. The subject enjoys so much importance that need of reforms is realized at national level and a niche of government officers is dedicated to it. Most probably these officials belong to ministry of health and they are skilled in the field of policy analysis. They may have special technical skills in the field of health sciences but their exposure to relationship between policy formwork and healthcare setting is relatively poor. This is the reason; most of them have paid no attention to the political feasibility of healthcare reforms (LAC, 2000).

It is assumed in the modern era that health sector is closely related to political process. This relationship is inviting the attention of people who are interested in healthcare reforms. However, there is a group of healthcare experts who nullify any such relationship and focus on technical aspects more that the policy perspective. These experts do not include policy studies among the topics which are related to healthcare system. Likewise, the influence of policy reforms and frameworks is beyond their comprehension (LAC, 2000). The general policy process is depicted in the figure below.


There are many examples in which the leading authorities play active role in bring reforms to healthcare systems. New York is one of the leading examples in which Governor Spitzer attended many discussions lasting for the period of several months before the final strategy was finalized (Zelman and Melamed, 2009). Governor Romney took serious initiative in Massachusetts by developing a team to address the problems related to subject and evaluating the state healthcare problems on the whole. He took into consideration the matters related to state and individual as well. Governor Rendell in Pennsylvania analyzed the situation from broader perspective and concluded that there is strong need of state intervention. He decided so as he realized that private healthcare entities were incurring high costs for these activities. Hence it was preferable that these activities are carried out by state. Governor Schwarzenegger in California analyzed the healthcare system and suggested that system level initiatives were required to heal the broken system of healthcare in the state.


USAID is playing an active role in promoting the activities related to health reforms in various countries of the world. The countries include Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, Kyrgystan, Kazakhstan, Russia, the Philippines, Indonesia, Jamaica and Kenya. Zambia and Ghana are not the exceptions (Rossetti and Bossert, 1999). It is interesting to mention that both public and private sector health care systems are developed with the help of USAID.

Success of any health reform is only possible if it is brought under the light of the findings mentioned above and available literature. Hence, it is argued that health policy development is dependent upon the researches that study the impact of formulation, adoption, and implementation processes in health reform initiatives.


Administration for Children and Families. (2001). Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), 1936-2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at:

Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. 2000. Leavers and Diversion Studies: Summary of Research on Welfare Outcomes Funded by ASPE. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

LAC. (2000). Policy Toolkit for Strengthening Health Sector Reform. LAC Health Sector Reform Initiative.

Rossetti, A.G. And Bossert, T.J. (1999). Comparative Analysis of Policy Processes: Enhancing the Political Feasibility of Health Reform. LAC, Health Sector Reform Initiative.

Schram, S.F. And Soss, J. (2001). Success Stories: Welfare Reform, Policy Discourse, and the Politics of Research. Annals, Aapss, 577.

Zelman, W. And…