Various subtle and not-so-subtle ways of eliminating people of color from the job application process exists and it is not of surprise that employers have maneuvered ways around affirmative action not unless it has been tied to visible hiring as well as promotion targets. Within a society that evidences this overwhelming racism, there is more likelihood that organizations and individuals will try to resist the existing efforts of ending it. It is of importance to set goals and enforce and monitor standards since these forms the best way of measuring compliance, (Kristin Jenkins, 2007).

The same mechanism will be of great help in making sure that affirmative action becomes more than a facade. Such mechanisms are not quotas. In the past, quotas have been used in excluding a given group of people from educational or job opportunities, (Sylvia Hurtado, 1992). There is need for numerical goals that is to guarantee compliance with the policies of affirmative action. Out of numerical goals democratic access to jobs, education, and job training will be promoted.

A section of people claim that affirmative action programs tend to lower self-esteem on the part of those who are favored by it; however no systematic evidence exists related to this. What is related to this is having inadequate access to good education, good jobs as well as housing, which leads to poor self-esteem. Therefore those who are truly worried over self-esteem should be the strong advocators of effective affirmative action programs in order to counter discrimination.

Programs of affirmative action are still of help to various areas of public life for they are still opening wider the opportunities that otherwise could have not been gotten by other people. The continued attack towards affirmative action tend to be part of the systematic attempt that aims to roll back the progress that is to end discrimination as well as to curtail a broader social commitment to equality and justice, (Paul Kivel, 2011). The effect of attacking affirmative action is a self-destruction to many except the rich. Though it is not a total cure, for it will not completely eliminate racial discrimination, as well as competition for the scarce resources, they will ensure that each and everyone is able to get a chance to what will be available.

The lingering question should be the reason as to why there is still not enough safer, decent paying jobs for all regardless of the social position or race. Therefore attempts to expand opportunities for the victims of discrimination means they are not only going to have easy access to the existing education, jobs and housing, summarized as affirmative action, but as well it will be an act of removing the existing obstacles that bring about limited resources, summarized as Social justice.


Affirmative action has been considered as a symbol of white people serious commitment and acknowledgement to finding a permanent solution to racial discrimination. It becomes of importance that during this period of backlash against the gains from the last three decades, we stop interfering and doing away with programs that have always acted as a counter to the effects of discrimination. On the part of those who say that they are truly committed to the American ideals of justice and equality, instead of attacking the affirmative action, they should come up with other remedies for racial inequalities that exist in our society. A clear hypocrisy is evidenced on the personalities who were on the fore front of supporting equal opportunity go against affirmative action.


Claude M. Steele (1992) "Race and the Schooling of Black Americans "The Atlantic Monthly.

Retrieved September 23, 2012 from

Kristin Jenkins (2007) "The Story of Race and the Classification of People: Generative or Not?"

Serendip Studio. Retrieved September 23, 2012 from

Paul Kivel (2011)"Affirmative Action Works" Retrieved September 23, 2012 from

Sylvia Hurtado (1992) "The Campus Racial Climate" Ohio State University Press. Retrieved September 23, 2012 from

Vernellia R. Randall, (1997) Is Affirmative Action Still Needed? Retrieved 23rd September 2012