Generally, benign and malignant tumors have certain similarities and differences with the similarities including the fact that they can both quite large, they are dangerous at times, and they recur locally. On the contrary, they differ in ability to metastasize, growth rate, tissue invasion, systemic effects, probability and site of recurrence, effective treatment methods, cellular appearance, and death toll (Eldridge, 2013).

Question 7:

Prenatal genetic testing is a process that is used to determine whether a fetus has a genetic abnormality or disease like Down syndrome. However, prenatal genetic testing isn't required though screening for Down syndrome and some other conditions is nearly a standard practice and the outcomes are not conclusive. A prenatal screening test is accomplished through the use of karyotype to examine the fetus' size, number, and shape of chromosomes. The karyotype can be carried out on cells derived from the placenta in late first trimester or amniotic fluid in the second trimester.

Question 8:

Induced pluripotent stem cells are cells from an adult that have been reprogrammed genetically to an embryonic stem cell-like state. These stem cells are artificially obtained from a non-pluripotent cell i.e. An adult somatic cell through inducing a compelled expression of particular genes. In most cases, these stem cells are derived from adult blood cells, stomach, prostate cells, liver, urinary tract cells, and liver. Some of the ethical issues associated with these stem cells include disagreements about their similarities and differences with human induced pluripotent stem cells, the issue of informed consent process, and their equivalence to embryonic stem cells.

Question 9:

Gastrointestinal symptoms are widespread clinical conditions that many people experience such as gas in the GI tract, indigestion, stomach upset, nausea, changes in bowel habits, and vomiting. Gastrointestinal symptoms are often linked to stress because an overstressed body usually manifests or expresses itself through these symptoms. Some of the most common symptoms include nervousness, heartburn, gas, constipation, and diarrhea. These symptoms occur because the body experiences inability to slow down or relax when undergoing stress. In essence, stress contributes to gastrointestinal symptoms by affecting the functions of parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system. When experiencing stress, oxygen is partially drained off from the digestive tract to feed the larger muscles ("Gastrointestinal Symptoms," 2012). This results in lack of oxygen in gastrointestinal area, which slows down or stops digestion.

Question 10:

Gate control theory of pain is a concept that suggests that the spinal cord consists of a gate that either permits or blocks pain signals to continue on to the brain. Unlike a normal gate, this gate functions by distinguishing between the various kinds of fibers containing the pain signals. As a concept used to explain chronic or phantom pain, gate control theory states that pain signals travelling through small nerve fibers are permitted to continue on to the brain whereas those in large nerve fibers are not permitted to pass. Therefore, the theory seeks to describe why emotions and thoughts have significant effect on pain perception.


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Eldridge, L. (2013, April 28). Benign vs. Malignant. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from

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McInnes, I.B. & Schett, G. (2011, December 8). The Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. The New England Journal of Medicine, 365, 2205-2219. Retrieved from